Health and Medical

The Surprising Culprits Eating Away at Your Teeth

Most people have had to visit the dentist for fillings, root canals, scaling and root planning. These procedures are costly and preceded by painful symptoms. Surprisingly, most of the problems affecting teeth are preventable. Regular brushing and flossing can save you a painful trip to the dentist. Aside from good dental hygiene, staying away from particular culprits guilty of eating away your teeth can keep your teeth healthy. The phrase “watch what you eat” is not only popular in the gym but also at the dental clinic. Certain foods and beverages are known for damaging teeth and gums. Here are some of the culprits eating away your teeth.

Stay away from candy

Although hard candies look harmless, if you take too many you stand the risk of developing dental cavities. The constant exposure of teeth to sugar is harmful. Oral bacteria use sugar as substrates to produce harmful acidic products. The acids dissolve and damage teeth. The inner layers of the tooth are usually exposed as the decaying process continues. The continued damage on the enamel forms tooth cavities that may extend to the pulp. Tooth sensitivity and pain are the most common tale tell signs of active tooth decay.

Ice is not for chewing

Ice is made of water and doesn’t contain any sugar but it can still damage your teeth. It’s a habit among some people to chew the ice left behind after taking a cold drink. Unlike water, ice is hard and can leave your teeth vulnerable to damage. The cold temperature of ice can actually cause your teeth to fracture. Usually, chewing ice cubes causes microscopic cracks on the surface of the enamel. These cracks can coalesce and form bigger fractures. Although crushed ice is less harmful than bigger cubes, it still doesn’t get the blessing of most dentists. Therefore, it’s prudent to break the habit of chewing ice and enjoy water in its liquid form.

Cut down on citrus intake

Citric juices and fruits are packed with vitamin C and other nutrients. An adequate intake of vitamin C guarantees healthy tissue growth and repair. These benefits are good for you but not always for your teeth. A squeeze of lemon can turn water into a tasty beverage but this may not be the best choice for your teeth. Citric foods expose your teeth to acids causing damage to your enamel. Moreover, citric fruits and juices irritate mouth sores. Therefore, it’s important to drink plenty of plain water to dilute the acid build up from citric food intake.

Avoid sticky foods

Dry fruits are a favourite for many people. They are a healthy snack option but most dried fruits are sticky and this is a big problem when it comes to dental health. Sticky foods tend to stay on your teeth longer than other types of foods. They cling in the teeth and their crevices while harbouring a lot of sugar. If you must take dried fruits, remember to rinse your mouth with water, brush and floss after.

Stay away from carbonated drinks

Little good comes from soda or pop even when the word ‘diet’ is stamped on the can. Research shows that drinking large amounts of carbonated soda extensively damages teeth. The damage has even been equated to the dental effects of taking methamphetamine and crack cocaine. Carbonated beverages enable plaque to produce more acid to attack tooth enamel. Moreover, the amount of saliva in your mouth significantly reduces with increased intake of carbonated drinks. A dry mouth is a breeding ground for bacteria which cause tooth decay. Dark coloured sodas are also notorious for staining and discolouring teeth. Despite these effects, do not rush for a toothbrush immediately after taking soda. This may hasten the decaying process. Next time you are thirsty, down some water and save yourself the trouble of tooth decay.

Limit your alcohol consumption

Alcohol has a lot of health implications especially when it comes to dental health. Alcohol consumption dries out your mouth. Without saliva, your teeth are vulnerable to damage. Saliva prevents food from sticking on your teeth and washes away particles. Saliva also contains immune factors like Immunoglobulin A that offer the first line of defence against harmful bacteria. Without saliva, you are susceptible to tooth decay, gum disease and oral infections. Drink water, use fluoride rinses and take oral hydrated solutions to keep your mouth hydrated.
Bread is an everyday food item but excessive consumption can cause damage to your teeth. Other common food items and drinks that can cause tooth damage include wine, coffee, crackers, sports drinks and pickles. Most of these items are not avoidable but their intake can be regulated. Moreover, good dental hygiene practices like brushing your teeth, flossing and going for dental check-ups can prevent tooth decay and other dental complications.


How to Control Odour in Wastewater Treatment

Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) used to be located at the outer edge of a town so that the municipality could treat the water at a safe distance while minimizing wastewater transportation or channelling costs. However, rapid urbanization and commercialization of land have meant that a lot of the land surrounding WWTPs has become prime real estate for residential blocks, high-rise apartments and office buildings due to their proximity and easy access to the town centre.
This encroachment of WWTPs has influenced investment into odour control solutions. Wastewater treatment facilities are now extremely sensitive to the odour released into the vicinity of the treatment plant and are putting significant efforts into eliminating foul smells. Odour Control has become a major cause of opposition and political debate over the continued operation of several wastewater treatment plants located near commercial and residential areas.

 Causes of Wastewater Odours

There are many factors that contribute to the formation and emission of foul smells from wastewater treatment plants such as the source or type of wastewater, methods of treatment, the structure of the WWTP and wastewater delivery methods. Nevertheless, the main factor contributing to the presence of foul odours at WWTPs is the formation of Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) gas which has a characteristic pungent, rotten-egg smell.
Hydrogen Sulphide is formed when wastewater has a limited supply of oxygen circulating in it, effectively creating anaerobic conditions. These conditions are ideal for the growth of sulphur-reducing-bacteria (SRB) that thrive by extracting oxygen molecules from the abundant supply sulphate ions (SO4-) in the wastewater. This oxygen extraction results in the formation of H2S. Additionally, H2S has low solubility in wastewater thus easily gets released into the atmosphere. There are other compounds that contribute to the bad smells at the treatment plants but they are not as significant as H2S.

Wastewater Odour Control Measures

There are several technologies in use today to eliminate odour from wastewater treatment facilities and can be classified into two categories based on their mode of action. Vapour-Phase technologies target the point sources of the odour problem and treat the air released, while Liquid-Phase technologies treat the wastewater directly to prevent the release of odours into the atmosphere.

Vapour-Phase Odour Control Technologies

Vapour-Phase technologies work by treating the air expelled from the wastewater. The technology uses ventilation systems with negative pressure designed to isolate the air stream and direct it to the odour control systems for treatment. These systems are well designed to prevent fugitive emissions from getting into the atmosphere.

  1. Carbon Adsorption is the simplest method of odour control because it doesn’t use any chemicals or biological processes. In the adsorption process, the vapour is simply passed over a bed of carbon adsorbent and the molecules and odour-causing compounds adhere to the surface of the adsorbent. Although this method is very effective for H2S and sulphur-based compounds, it doesn’t work well on nitrogen-based compounds such as ammonia.
  2. Wet Air Scrubbing works by passing the vapour phase through an aqueous chemical solution. The chemical balance in the system is maintained automatically with set responses for a variety of loading conditions. Multi-stage scrubbers make it possible to deal with a wide range of contaminants because you can use different chemical solutions in each stage.


Liquid-Phase Technologies

Liquid-Phase systems tackle the odour-causing compounds while they are still in the wastewater, effectively preventing the release of foul odours into the atmosphere. This is achieved primarily by adding a chemical to the wastewater and is usually done into wastewater collection systems rather than at the treatment plant. By preventing the formation and release of H2S into the vapour, liquid-phase treatment controls effectively provide both odour and corrosion control.

  1. Iron salts are used to either oxidize or precipitate dissolved sulphide. The ferrous salts such as ferrous sulphate are good for precipitating sulphide as ferrous sulphide. This ferrous sulphide is then carried downstream and is dissociated during the aeration process of the wastewater treatment plant. The Iron salts are basically employed to prevent H2S formation and are not effective in treating other odorous compounds.
  2. Oxidation Method is the application of strong chemical oxidizing agents, such as Hydrogen Peroxide, to wastewater in order to trigger a chemical reaction with dissolved sulphide. This reaction normally results in the conversion of sulphide to sulphates or sulphur. Large amounts of the chemical agent are needed because they usually react with and oxidize many other non-odorous compounds and can be depleted in the process.



Many WWTPs have been successful in dealing with bad odour at the wastewater facilities effectively raising employee job satisfaction ratings as well as the quality of life in the vicinity of the plant. Other very effective odour control solutions include liquid redox technology, biocide process, biofiltration and anthraquinone.

Fashion and Beauty

Lipstick Shades for Winter

Colours change from season to season and so should your lipstick. Summer shades are bright and uplifting, autumn shades are earthier tones and spring shades match the flowers in bloom. Winter is a time for whipping out the deep, rich and dark tones. The vamp look is in this winter with models on the runway strutting their stuff down the catwalk wearing black, dark reds, and deep purple. It makes sense to change up your lipstick in winter, just as you do with clothes. Let’s take a look at some of the hottest lipstick shades for the coldest season.

Navy Blue

It’s not often that you get to bust out some navy blue lipstick. It usually looks a bit out of place or a bit over the top. Well, not in winter. It’s the perfect time to wear cool and dark colours while making a statement. Pair navy blue lipstick with a lighter base – go easy on the bronzer. Be bold, be beautiful, be you, be blue.


Black lipstick is hard to pull off without looking like a total goth. The neutral tones of your winter jacket will complement the black lipstick and it will appear subtler. There are a range of black lipsticks on the market. Matte black lipstick looks amazing while wearing black sparkly clothes. They complement each other well, making your clothes and lips pop.


Plum is in this winter. So pucker up and put on the plum. If you’re not comfortable with black and you’re a fan of deep purples, then plum is for you. It looks great with smoky eyes done with shades of purple.


Winter and red wine go together like summer and champagne. So it’s kind of natural that burgundy lipstick would creep onto the runways this winter. The plus side is that when you are partaking in a wine, no one will notice the wine stains on your lips. Bonus!


Deep shades of brown done tastefully can look amazing – but be careful to get the rest of your makeup right. Brown can be a bit tricky. You should take a holistic approach when doing your makeup so everything gels well and compliments each other.


One of my favourite things about winter is the berries. Blueberries, strawberries, blackberries, and raspberries. Why not use nature as inspiration for your makeup? These colours look great on people with olive skin and will look amazing with a little black dress.


The perfect mix of pink and red. If you’re a fan of either of these colours, you’ll love magenta. This one works well if you have fair skin and will give you that femme fatale look. Magenta goes great with a lighter foundation and minimal eye makeup. Maybe a little mascara and that’s all you need to do.


Purple lipstick is one of my absolute favourite tones for any time of the year although it looks best during the colder months. It’s fun, vibrant with tones of badassness. It always reminds me of grape flavoured Hubba Bubba but unfortunately doesn’t taste the same.

Deep Reds

Deep reds look amazing. There are some amazing shades out there that will turn your lips into kissable crimson pillows. Deep reds accentuate your lips and make them look plump and full. They tend to draw attention, but make sure you get the rest of your makeup right or they could be drawing attention to how bad your application skills are.
Winter is here and so it’s time to change up your makeup. These darker days are great for darker shades so experiment in many ways and show the world your beautiful face.

Fashion and Beauty

Eye Shadowing Techniques and Colours to Make Blue Eyes Pop

Getting lost in those pools of blue is easy to do – if your eye make-up is done correctly and enhances your baby blues. Blue eyes are a blessing and tend to stand out from any other colour and there a variety of techniques you can use to make them stand out even more.
Eye shadow plays a massive part in accentuating the natural beauty of your beautiful blue eyes and in this post, we explore some eye shadowing techniques that will make your peepers pop.

Contrast is Important

Contrasting eye shadow is important when it comes to bringing your baby blues to attention. It makes sense that using blue eye shadow may not be as effective as brown if you have blue eyes. Your eyes will blend in with the eye shadow and get lost in the sea of blue that is your eye make-up.
However, contrasting colours will bring them to the forefront. Using orangey tones as your eye shadow will contrast your blue eyes significantly and make them stand out even more. A good technique is to make a gradient of orange-based colour – it doesn’t have to be bright. Brown is also great for making the eyes really pop. If I use a brown, I will use the natural tone of my skin to create the gradient.

Complimentary Colours

When applying make-up, think of your face as the canvas and use the natural colours, contours, and features to your advantage. When choosing your makeup to take into account the colour of your eyes, in this case, we are working with blue. Using complementary colours, such as purple, is a great option that can look visually stunning if done correctly. You can create different styles by taking inspiration from nature. Think about the sunrise and the colours associated with it. Add some golden specks to eye shadow to really make your eyes sparkle like the sun.  So work with your blue eyes and choose colours that will complement them in the best possible way.


Keep it simple Sally. Blue eyes naturally stand out from the crowd and penetrate even the toughest of souls without make up. So it doesn’t take a great deal of effort to enhance them. As I said earlier, work with what your mother gave you. Your eye make-up has the ability to make attract or detract from your baby blues. Keep your eye make-up simple to allow your eyes to be the star of the show, rather than your eye makeup. Extravagant artistic eye make-up can look amazing but will sometimes have opposite effect to what you are looking for. It all depends on your mood on the day.

Eyeliner to look Finer

Eyeliner is great for framing your eyes and drawing attention to the natural beauty of your eyes. Using eyeliner only on the top of the eye can be better than using it on top and bottom. Eyeliner on the bottom tends to detract rather than enhance as the bottom eyeliner will wash out the blueness of your eyes. Choose a brief sweep of eyeshadow underneath instead.
You can also choose instead a bottom eyeliner shade that perfectly matches your eye colour to really wow people.

Get Creative

Make-up is an art form and art has unlimited combinations and possibilities and the process is fun and meditative. If you have some free time and want to get creative, bust out the makeup bag and have some fun, get to YouTubing. It’s good to keep your make up bag well stocked with a variety of colours so that you have the freedom to experiment and have some fun.
Metallic eyeshadows are fun to blend with natural colours as they have the ability to really add some sheen and sparkle. Take inspiration from nature, art and of course, the internet is an unlimited source of information and inspiration. Don’t be afraid to be bold and try new techniques and colour combinations. As the old saying goes, fortune favours the brave.
Blue eyes are captivating and remind us of the ocean and sky. They have the ability to draw people in as they get sucked into your gaze. They are also fun to play around and get creative in the make-up department. You can be as bold or as subtle as you want. Sometimes simple is the best method, as blue eyes don’t take a lot of effort to enhance. That being said, of course there are some techniques that work better than others and hopefully, this post has been of some help when it comes to making your blue eyes sparkle. Get creative and some fun with it and find your own unique style.

Home and Garden

Site prep for your new underground water tank

Positioning your tank underground isn’t an intuitive choice. You probably worry about a million different things, both realistic and otherwise. For example, underground tanks are rarely located below the house, so they’ll be somewhere else in the yard. They might lie beneath the driveway, garden, or swimming pool, so it’s reasonable to assume they could cave in when your neighbour parks their truck, or when the kids play jump-rope.
None of these real-seeming fears bear any weight though, pun intended. In-ground tanks, whether they’re plastic or concrete – are designed specifically to hold heavy loads. That said, be sure to let your installer know exactly where the tank will be. An under-drive-way tank probably needs a stronger lid than the one below your wooden shed. Tanks that sit under the pool seem more prone to harm, because of the water weight …
That said, the bottom of the pool is already reinforced to prevent crumbling, so your tank is safe. Its own bottom needs to be pretty solid though, because it’s supporting the mass of two water … masses. Also, tanks beneath ground level need efficient pumping systems to push the water to the surface when needed. Now then, how do you prepare your site for the coming tank? Site-prep is the same regardless of the material used to make our tank.

Contents beat components

Your preparation is driven less by tank components and more by the size and shape of your tank. These will determine the depth and width of your hole. If your tank is already built and needs to simply be lowered into place, then you need 50cm to 60cm of room on either side of the tank, and well as 75cm above it. Below the tank, you’ll need a base that is about 75cm as well, depending on the material you will use. The slab can be loose sand or poured concrete. It needs to be flat and level.
Start by selecting your tank location. Clear the surface to remove any rocks, stones, or shrubs. If there are trees nearby, consider whether you want to uproot them. Tree roots are stronger than they look, and because they’re below the surface, you can’t accurately tell where they’re growing. If they stretch towards the tank’s position over the years, they could grow right through your tank’s walls and you’d never know.
Once the surface is smooth and free of visible debris, start digging the hole, leaving the required space around the tank. Your tools will be determined and soil type. Rocky ground may require a bulldozer, and sticky clay soil can be hard to get through. Don’t discard the soil and stone you’re pulling out of the ground, because you’ll need to use it later. Some of it will be poured back into the hole once the tank is in position.

Dig deeper

As you dig, think about any accessories the tank will need, like pipes, pumps, and vents. Those will affect the structure of your hole. For example, you may need to dig tunnels that will hold pipes leading to the house, or plumbing systems connecting your house to municipal mains. The sides of the holes don’t have to be even or flat, but the bottom does, so when you’re done excavating, pack it tight and reinforce it.
You can pour concrete reinforced with steel. 15 cm is adequate. Option two is fine sand, though you need about a foot of that if you’re not going to bind it with cement. Concrete and sand are good options because they don’t have jagged edges that will pierce the tank. Think of touching the tip of a pin vs having your hand jammed down. It’s the same theory, because once the tank is positioned and filled with water, the weight will press down on the smallest, dullest stone with ramming force, puncturing the tank even if the stone wasn’t that sharp.

Where flat earth counts

Another reason why the surface needs to be flat is earthen movement. We don’t feel it, but the earth never stands still, literally. It’s rotating on its axis and spinning in orbit. Its core plates are constantly sliding and shifting. And water is heavy, so any tilt of the tank, when combined with moving rock tables and heavy water, could shift the soil around the tank and cause it to collapse, with potentially disastrous results. Now that your base is flat and your foundation is solid, your site is ready. Your tank can be lowered into place and the hole refilled, or if you’re constructing the tank on site, you can form the walls of the mould. Don’t forget to cure your concrete. It lessens the chances of cracks that could later cause leaks.
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Surprise Your Partner with a Mobile Car Wash

The best thing about the weekend is having a little bit of time to spend on doing the things you love. Saturday for me is about getting those little jobs done around the house, like catching up on laundry, cleaning the house a bit more – because during the week there is no time for anything. Saturday night is all about getting dressed up to enjoy a night out socialising. Sunday mornings are for sleeping in and taking the day at the slowest possible pace. There’s no way I’m going to do anything remotely associated with a chore on Sunday (at least I aim for that) – this is the little routine I have going on at the moment.
But it’s not always been like this. It’s taken me a long to slow my weekends down. When I was younger I would try to cram more and more things into my weekends. Until of course, I started feeling ‘stressed’.
It’s no surprise then when you hear that Australians are suffering from a busyness epidemic. Not only are we souped-up busy during the week but it can spill over into the weekends – and that’s where the problem lies. Endless-to-do’s are affecting our health in many ways and it’s causing us to feel stressed. Everybody knows that stress can impact on our sleep, but did you know that it can also impact your relationships as well? Feeling stressed can cause you to become irritable with loved ones or even with your colleagues. There is a solution, and it involves you taking part in that old tradition of rest and relaxation.
Many people find driving their cars relaxing, after all what could be better than cruising around in  your wheels? People have an emotional connection to their cars. Car ownership rates have been on the increase since the 1950s. Cars offer personal mobility and flexibility making them extremely popular with Australians. Increasingly people are buying new cars because your car can say so much about you. Think about the image of a SUV urban jungle mum or the mid-life crisis sports car.
They say doing something for somebody else can make us feel better. So with that in mind, here is a solution to quash two problems simultaneously; the lack of time we all face and loving your car. Why not surprise your partner with a mobile car wash? Your partner will love you for it. Time is precious, so why not spend the time you would have spent washing your car and instead do something like, oh I don’t know – maybe put your feet up and relax? Who wants to spend a couple of hours over the weekend washing their car, when you could be relaxing (having a dirty car adds more stress to our lives because the dirt on the car is a reminder that another job needs doing). Using a mobile car wash service that comes to you is even better because then you don’t even have to leave your house. Bingo!
Treating your partner with a mobile car wash will be the ultimate gift. Your loved one doesn’t even have to leave their house or join any queues and waste their time going through a drive-through car wash. And it’s the best way to say ‘I love you’ because you know how much they love their car. Whether its a basic detail or a deluxe car makeover, it’s a surprise gift that not many people think of. Afterall, keeping your car looking good (and sparkling clean) shouldn’t burden you.
So go on, and try something new to save your next weekend from excessive busyness and surprise someone you love.
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